A pretrial discovery can be defined as "the formal process of exchanging information between the parties about the witnesses and evidence they’ll present at trial" and allows for the evidence of the trial to be presented to the parties before the initial trial begins.[7] The early stages of the lawsuit may involve initial disclosures of evidence by each party and discovery, which is the structured exchange of evidence and statements between the parties. Discovery is meant to eliminate surprises, clarify what the lawsuit is about, and also to make the parties decide if they should settle or drop frivolous claims and/or defenses. At this point the parties may also engage in pretrial motions to exclude or include particular legal or factual issues before trial.
I finally decided to invest in the program and start to learn "How to Win in Court"! Your program saved me. Learning the rules of court make a difference! The HOA dropped the case. Thank you for everything! I now can start my life over after 10 years of unfounded harassment from greedy people who don't care! The only regret is I did not order your program sooner. ... Becca C.
RobecoSAM AG and its related affiliated and subsidiary companies can not guarantee that the hyperlinks set out on the sites will be accurate at the time of your access. Moreover, the sites pointed at by hyperlinks are developed and possibly maintained by persons over whom RobecoSAM AG or its related affiliated and subsidiary companies have no control. We cannot and do not monitor the sites linked to our pages on the Internet. Accordingly, RobecoSAM AG and/or its related affiliated and subsidiary companies assume no responsibility for the content of any sites referenced to by any hyperlink or otherwise. RobecoSAM AG and/or its related, affiliated and subsidiary companies believe that their making hyperlinks available to publicly accessible Web pages and newsgroups is legally permissible and consistent with the common, customary expectations of those who make use of the Internet.
In most cases, the EEOC can file a lawsuit to enforce the law only after it investigates and makes a finding that there is reasonable cause to believe that discrimination has occurred, and is unable to resolve the matter through a process called "conciliation." The EEOC has discretion which charges to litigate if conciliation efforts are unsuccessful, and ultimately litigates a small percentage of all charges filed. When deciding whether to file a lawsuit, the EEOC considers factors such as the strength of the evidence, the issues in the case, and the wider impact the lawsuit could have on the EEOC's efforts to combat workplace discrimination. Congress also gave individuals the right to file a lawsuit in court.

Strickland v. Washington (1984) Nix v. Whiteside (1986) Lockhart v. Fretwell (1993) Williams v. Taylor (2000) Glover v. United States (2001) Bell v. Cone (2002) Woodford v. Visciotti (2002) Wiggins v. Smith (2003) Holland v. Jackson (2004) Wright v. Van Patten (2008) Bobby v. Van Hook (2009) Wong v. Belmontes (2009) Porter v. McCollum (2009) Padilla v. Kentucky (2010) Sears v. Upton (2010) Premo v. Moore (2011) Lafler v. Cooper (2012) Buck v. Davis (2017)

To represent yourself successfully, especially ­if your adversary has a lawyer, you must be ­­­­­­prepared to invest substantial amounts of time in your ­­­­case­­­­­­­—and particu­larly in the many pretrial procedures and maneuvers that can mean the difference ­between winning and losing. To non-lawyers, the legal system seems to center on the outcomes of trials. After all, that’s the dramatic part—and the focus of so many movies and TV shows. If you believe these portrayals, you might think you just have to file a few papers, tell your story to a judge, and claim victory. (This was the belief of Vinny, who represents two ­defendants charged with murder in the wonderful court­room comedy film, My Cousin Vinny. Vinny shows up for an ­arraignment and tries to explain to the judge that the police made a mistake. Vinny is shocked when the judge advises him that he’s not going to set aside all of his state’s procedures just because Vinny finds himself “in the unique position of representing clients who say they didn’t do it.”)
Use of the Documents for any other purpose is expressly prohibited. Such action is prohibited by law. Everybody who breaks the License Agreement risks the civil and criminal penalties and fort litigation, in which ESET will demand adequate compensation and reparation for its legal rights violation. ESET is not responsible for the content or accuracy of Documents that have been modified subsequent to ESET’s written consent.

The Connecticut Supreme Court narrowed criminal defendant's right to self representation, stating that "we are free to adopt for mentally ill or mentally incapacitated defendants who wish to represent themselves at trial a competency standard that differs from the standard for determining whether such a defendant is competent to stand trial". A Senior Assistant State's Attorney explained that the new standard essentially allows judges to consider whether the defendants are competent enough to perform the skills needed to defend themselves, including composing questions for voir dire and witnesses.[27][28]


LII was established in 1992 at Cornell Law School by Professor Peter Martin and Tom Bruce with a $250,000 multi-year startup grant from the National Center for Automated Information Research.[9] The LII was originally based on Gopher and provided access to United States Supreme Court decisions and the US Code.[3] Its original mission included the intent to "carry out applied research on the use of digital information technology in the distribution of legal information,...[and t]o make law more accessible."[9] In the early years of LII, Bruce developed Cello the first web browser for Microsoft Windows.[10][11] Cello was released on 8 June 1993.[12] In 1994 LII moved from Gopher to the Web.[3] Since 2007 the IRS has distributed its IRS Tax Products DVD[13] with LII's version of 26 USC (Internal Revenue Code).[14]
Arbitration is an alternative to trial that is often perceived to be quicker and less costly. In arbitration, a privately agreed-to arbitrator, not a judge, rules on the case. There is no jury, procedures before the hearing are more informal, and the arbitrator is not strictly bound by rules of evidence. Arbitrators generally charge by either the full or half day; you and your adversary split the arbitrator’s fee.
Use of the Documents for any other purpose is expressly prohibited. Such action is prohibited by law. Everybody who breaks the License Agreement risks the civil and criminal penalties and fort litigation, in which ESET will demand adequate compensation and reparation for its legal rights violation. ESET is not responsible for the content or accuracy of Documents that have been modified subsequent to ESET’s written consent.
RobecoSAM AG and its related affiliated and subsidiary companies can not guarantee that the hyperlinks set out on the sites will be accurate at the time of your access. Moreover, the sites pointed at by hyperlinks are developed and possibly maintained by persons over whom RobecoSAM AG or its related affiliated and subsidiary companies have no control. We cannot and do not monitor the sites linked to our pages on the Internet. Accordingly, RobecoSAM AG and/or its related affiliated and subsidiary companies assume no responsibility for the content of any sites referenced to by any hyperlink or otherwise. RobecoSAM AG and/or its related, affiliated and subsidiary companies believe that their making hyperlinks available to publicly accessible Web pages and newsgroups is legally permissible and consistent with the common, customary expectations of those who make use of the Internet.

Traditionally, legal representation was an all or nothing deal. If you wanted to hire a lawyer to represent you in a civil case, the lawyer would carry out all the legal tasks that the case required. If you couldn’t afford to—or didn’t want to—turn your entire case over to a lawyer, your only alternative was no lawyer at all: You would be a pro se litigant, representing yourself and single-handedly completing all legal tasks, such as preparing pleadings and appearing in court.
Pro se legal representation (/ˌproʊ ˈsiː/ or /ˌproʊ ˈseɪ/) comes from Latin, translating to "for oneself" and literally meaning "on behalf of themselves", which basically means advocating on one's own behalf before a court or other tribunal, rather than being represented by a lawyer. This may occur in any court proceeding, whether one is the defendant or plaintiff in civil cases, and when one is a defendant in criminal cases. Pro se is a Latin phrase meaning "for oneself" or "on one's own behalf". This status is sometimes known as propria persona (abbreviated to "pro per"). In England and Wales the comparable status is that of "litigant in person".
Do I have a basic understanding of how court procedures work? Custody hearings, and court procedures in general, can be quite confusing for first-timers. Parents considering pro se representation usually benefit from attending a couple of court hearings in advance, just to become more familiar with what to expect in court and what proper court etiquette looks like. (And remember: any questions you have about proper court procedures can always be addressed to the court clerk. So seek that person out and develop a friendly rapport with him or her.)
You need the ability to think more in terms like, "That is A view" versus "There is my view and the wrong view."  "That is A defense" versus "They don't have a defense."  Being impatient or intolerant with another's view, defense or assertion appears as immaturity in the courtroom.  Opposing side is supposed to have a view, defense or assertion.  Many times you will deal with outrageous arguments using deceit and/or lies that would never be used as arguments outside the courtroom.
These systems can help overcome the majority of problems inherent in legal information retrieval systems, in that manual classification has the greatest chances of identifying landmark cases and understanding the issues that arise in the text.[16] In one study, ontological searching resulted in a precision rate of 82% and a recall rate of 97% among legal professionals.[17] The legal texts included, however, were carefully controlled to just a few areas of law in a specific jurisdiction.[18]

On February 8, 2019 the Juliana plaintiffs sought a court order preventing the federal government from issuing leases and mining permits for extracting coal on federal public lands, leases for offshore oil and gas exploration and extraction activities, and federal approvals for new fossil fuel infrastructure. To obtain the order, plaintiffs filed what’s called a motion for a preliminary injunction with the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals while the government’s early appeal of the youths’ case is being heard.
Every agency tends to make its own rules and follow its own unique set of procedures. Many agencies describe their procedures on a website. In addition, an agency will furnish you with its rules as soon as you indicate that you want to file a claim. Be sure to contact the agency, ask for a copy of its rules before initiating a hearing, and follow them. The federal government and every state have an Administrative Procedure Act that provides basic protections in administrative hearings. You should read the applicable law and make sure the agency follows it. You can get information about these laws from a convenient database maintained by Florida State University at www.law.fsu.edu/library/admin.
The news provides the first instance of individual telco customers pushing to be awarded damages after Motherboard revealed in January that AT&T, T-Mobile, and Sprint had all sold access to the real-time location of their customers’ phones to a network of middlemen companies, before ending up in the hands of bounty hunters. Motherboard previously paid a source $300 to successfully geolocate a T-Mobile phone through this supply chain of data.
Fill-in-the-blank court forms for most states are available online. When you visit a state court website that has do-it-yourself forms, you may be asked a series of questions about your legal problem. Your answers will automatically generate the appropriate form with instructions on how to complete it and what to do with it once it’s done. To see the forms available on New York’s self-help website, visit www.nycourthelp.gov/diy/index.html.
Prior to the actual trial, a pretrial conference is usually held between the trial judge and counsel to determine if all discovery has been completed, what exhibits and witnesses each side might use during the trial, the approximate length of time that will be necessary for the trial, and what ground rules the judge will require before, during, and after the trial. After the conference, a pretrial order is usually prepared which sets out the above.

Authority is the information used to convince a court how to apply the law to the facts of a case. Legal authority is divided into two classes -- primary and secondary. There are two sources of primary authority: (1) constitutions, codes, statutes, and ordinances; and (2) court decisions, preferably from the same jurisdiction where the case is filed. Secondary authority, which is not cited except in certain circumstances, is found in legal encyclopedias, legal texts, treatises, law review articles, and court cases in other jurisdictions.
There was a study conducted in the Supreme Court Economic Review that shows why litigation financing can be practical and beneficial to the overall court system and lawsuits within the court. This study concluded that the new rules that were set for litigation financing actually did produce more settlements. Under conservative rules, there tended to be fewer settlements, however under the older rules they tended to be larger on average.[11]
If you plan to file a lawsuit under federal law alleging discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex (including pregnancy, gender identity, and sexual orientation), national origin, age (40 or older), disability, genetic information. or retaliation, you first have to file a charge with the EEOC (except for lawsuits under the Equal Pay Act, see below).
I am a member iPod this website and a Pro Se litigant. I do not feel pitted against opposing counsel at all. I have four attorneys representing defendants in my suit. I can clearly see those ethically defending their clients to the best of their ability and I also see two of them reverting to sneaky tricks, underestimating me as a Pro Se litigant and not following the law. The articles on this site that you seem to think are misguiding people are very helpful in understanding the behavior of those, less ethical, of your colleagues than you may be! This is a resource for people with sixth amendment rights. If you would like to represent me, pro bono, in my multi million dollar defamation suit, please contact me!
I took the time to watch a recent course produced by Courtroom5 and the great information it gave, and I couldn’t help thinking how I definitely would have turned to Courtroom5 to help with my case had I known about it while my case was going on. Courtroom5 offers a magnificent service that can be very helpful to pro se litigants. I would highly recommend to any pro se who is in need of some help in prosecuting his/her case to turn to Courtroom5.
Over 90% of all lawsuits are resolved without a trial. If you and your adversary can arrive at a fair resolution without going to trial, you can save yourself time and money. By showing you how to prove and disprove legal claims, this book can help you arrive at a fair resolution of your dispute using settlement procedures. For a complete discussion of settlement, see Chapter 6.
References to "Merrill Lynch" are references to any company in the Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated group of companies, which are wholly owned by Bank of America Corporation. Securities and Insurance Products: Are Not FDIC Insured • Are Not Bank Guaranteed • May Lose Value • Are Not a Bank Deposit • Are Not a Condition to Any Banking Service or Activity • Are Not Insured by Any Federal Government Agency
The fossil fuel industry initially intervened in the case as defendants, joining the U.S. government in trying to have the case dismissed. In April 2016, U.S. Magistrate Judge Thomas Coffin recommended denial of both motions to dismiss. U.S. District Court Judge Ann Aiken upheld Judge Coffin's recommendation, with the issuance of an historic November 10, 2016 opinion and order denying the motions. When the defendants sought an interlocutory appeal of that order, Judge  Aiken denied their motions in June 2017.
One newspaper report from the time suggests Parker did fine, though it was clear he was an amateur. He arrived with a thick pile of notes, wagged his fingers at the justices, and wore striped pants and a cutaway jacket. That was what all lawyers once wore to argue at the court, but it had fallen out of favor for all but government lawyers by the time Parker appeared before the court.
Kessler had alleged that the Duffer brothers stole his idea for the series after the trio got to talking at a reception for a 2014 screening of “Honeymoon” at the Tribeca Film Festival. Kessler said he pitched the brothers an idea for a project based on urban legends about a decommissioned military installation in Montauk, New York. He said he was stunned a year later when Netflix announced the Duffer brothers’ show, which contained similar themes and was originally titled “Montauk.”
He said his interest in the law started 30 years ago when he was a teacher at Michigan City Area Schools and was in a battle with the district over a grievance. He felt one of the school's attorneys hadn't treated him fairly, telling him first he should go to arbitration and then claiming arbitration was illegal after they ruled in his favor, Vukadinovich said. Since then, he slowly started learning about the law, first reading a dictionary of legal terms and then moving on to books about the law.
Best investment ever! My $249 won $216,000! I sued my employer for violating my copyright. More than a few lawyers turned me down, afraid to take on a giant corporation. After nearly giving up, I found your course. You are right. We can win (if the law is on our side) regardless how powerful our opponents may be. Our liberty really is in the law. Your course gives the common man power to get justice!... Patrick D.
Let’s say you go to court and a court reporter is not present. You argue very strong points against an attorney with weak ones. Despite both the law and facts on your side, you lose. Think an appellate court will understand what went wrong and overturn the ruling? Probably not. Appellate courts will find many excuses not to overturn a lower court ruling. Without a court reporter’s transcript, an appellate court will say that the lower court was in the best position to evaluate the arguments made. Then, they’ll let the lower court decision stand. A court reporter, on the other hand, creates an official record of proceedings that can be sent to the appellate court. In the lower court, the simple presence of a court reporter greatly curtails judicial bias and bad behavior from lawyers. With that, you have a better chance of getting a fair hearing. To learn more about the effect of court reporters on judges and lawyers see, A Court Reporter Stops All Foolishness.
If you’re a law student—or plan to go to law school—this book is a useful and easy-to follow guide to the basics of civil procedure and litigation, from initial pleadings and discovery to appeal. The knowledge of general court procedures and fluency with legal terminology that you will gain from reading this book will help you successfully transition to law school and enhance your understanding of assigned casebook readings.
In no event shell ESET and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortuous action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from the services. 
RobecoSAM AG and its related affiliated and subsidiary companies can not guarantee that the hyperlinks set out on the sites will be accurate at the time of your access. Moreover, the sites pointed at by hyperlinks are developed and possibly maintained by persons over whom RobecoSAM AG or its related affiliated and subsidiary companies have no control. We cannot and do not monitor the sites linked to our pages on the Internet. Accordingly, RobecoSAM AG and/or its related affiliated and subsidiary companies assume no responsibility for the content of any sites referenced to by any hyperlink or otherwise. RobecoSAM AG and/or its related, affiliated and subsidiary companies believe that their making hyperlinks available to publicly accessible Web pages and newsgroups is legally permissible and consistent with the common, customary expectations of those who make use of the Internet.

2. Motion for Instructed or Directed Verdict: This motion is usually made by the defendant at the close of evidence presented by the plaintiff’s side and is based on the premise that the plaintiff has failed to prove his case. If it is granted, the court instructs the jury to render a verdict for the defendant and against the plaintiff, and the trial is concluded in the defendant’s favor. If the court denies the motion, the trial continues with presentation of the defendant’s side.
Pitting pro se litigants against lawyers as if lawyers are enemies does far more disservice to your clients. I looked at your website, and I see that you toe a fine line between practicing without a license and simply giving pro se litigants enough rope to hang themselves. I understand that it’s a gimmick to make money for yourselves, but the nobler thing to do would be to direct these people to pro bono services instead of guiding them to shooting themselves in the foot by acting like the opposing party’s lawyer is out to get them and that what they don’t understand about the practice of law is somehow a trick or deception.

There is virtually no way this guy decided to give it all up at the 11:59th hour for nothing in return. He’d never be able to afford to pay off his attorney, and his attorney wouldn’t take a case that wasn’t collectible this far. We will never known for sure — that’s the nature of confidential settlements — but it’s likely that an attorney and his client got paid VERY well this weekend.
Narrow exceptions to this principle have also been suggested by other courts in the United States. For example, according to one district court a state-licensed attorney who is acting as pro se may collect attorney's fees when he represents a class (of which he is a member) in a class action lawsuit,[53] or according to another court represents a law firm of which he is a member.[54] In each of those instances, a non-attorney would be barred from conducting the representation altogether. One district court found that this policy does not prevent a pro se attorney from recovering fees paid for consultations with outside counsel.[55] Pro se who are not state-licensed attorneys cannot bring up a class action lawsuit.[22]
- The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit hears appeals from final decisions of federal district courts for civil actions arising under any Act of Congress relating to patents, plant variety protection, copyrights and trademarks, including claims of unfair competition when joined with substantial and related claims dealing with patents, copyrights, etc. as well as the final decisions of the district courts and the United States Claims Court where the United States is sued as defendant, and appeals from decisions of the United States Court of International Trade, and United States Patent and Trademark Office, the United States International Trade Commission relating to unfair import practices, and decisions by the Secretary of Commerce relating to import tariffs, among others.
The official ruling of a lawsuit can be somewhat misleading because post-ruling outcomes are often not listed on the internet. For example, in the case of William J. Ralph Jr. v. Lind-Waldock & Company[4] (September 1999), one would assume that Mr. Ralph lost the case when in fact, upon review of the evidence, it as found that Mr. Ralph was correct in his assertion that improper activity took place on the part of Lind-Waldock, and Mr. Ralph settled with Lind-Waldock.[5]
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